The intestine exerts the vital function of maximizing nutrient uptake from the diet we ingest, being constantly exposed to external stimulation by food components. Alterations in the timing of food intake and diet composition have been associated with the development of immune-related intestinal dysfunctions, including IBS. However, despite its profound biological and clinical relevance, there is a major gap in our understanding of how intestinal immune health is affected by diet. Recently, we uncovered that gut neurons are activated by the diet, and they can control intestinal immune responses. The long-term goal of this proposal is to determine how the diet is sensed by these neurons that have immune regulatory properties. Our studies are expected to uncover dietary and neuronal therapeutic targets to gut disturbances associated with a dysregulation in local immune responses, including IBS.