Inflammation is an integral part of immune defense against pathogens or tissue damage. However, inappropriate or prolonged inflammation has deleterious consequences and underlies many chronic diseases, especially inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) like Crohn’s disease and colitis. Specialized immune sensors that reside inside the cell cytosol are of particular interest in IBD, because mutations in the genes encoding these cytosolic sensors are strongly linked to Crohn’s Disease. It is not well understood how these cytosolic sensors are exposed to their ligands, which are derived from bacteria residing outside of the cell, in the lumen of the gut. This study will investigate components and mechanisms that deliver bacterial products to the intestinal cell cytosol and thereby regulate inflammation and contribute to intestinal health. The goal of this study is to determine the mechanism by which microbial products reach the cytosol and trigger key cytosolic innate immune sensors, which are known genetic risk factors for developing IBD. This study will provide new insights into the mechanisms of activation of these cytosolic sensors, and may eventually lead to new ways to intervene in the pathogenesis of IBD.