Grants Archive - Page 2 of 176 - Kenneth Rainin Foundation

Despite medical advances, a significant proportion of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients are resistant to therapies, with CD4 T cells being consistently activated. Analysis of inflamed tissues from a cohort of refractory IBD patients reveals an enrichment of metabolism gene transcripts in CD4 T cells. Exploring the mechanisms, our preliminary data demonstrate that several proinflammatory […]

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that is not absorbed very well in our bodies. It is usually broken down in the gut by a type of bacteria called Clostridia. When these bacteria are not there, sorbitol accumulates and that leads to increased osmotic stress for the cells lining our intestines. Our cells have many defense […]

In 1848, a German philosopher, Ludwig Feuerbach, first used the phrase, “We are what we eat.” This famous statement is particularly true in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) where a western diet lacking in plant derived components is a well-recognised risk factor. However, we still do not understand how the food we eat can contribute to […]

Mental health profoundly impacts inflammatory diseases of the body. This is particularly apparent in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), where stressful events in a patient’s life often enhance the severity of subsequent disease flares. Psychological stress is also strongly linked to bowel motility problems in IBD patients. How the state of the brain influences inflammation in […]

Microbiota small molecules correlate with IBD pathogenesis, yet the molecular mechanisms behind remain elusive. We recently developed gene manipulation tools in multiple gut Clostridia commensals, and by mutating the responsible gene and mono-colonizing germ-free mice with the mutant, we can switch specific microbiota metabolites on/off in vivo and found that metabolites derived from Clostridia amino […]

Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have dysfunctions in gut motility, the movement of muscles in the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, most available therapeutics developed to directly target the gut fail to stabilize symptoms, suggesting that dysfunctions in gut motility could arise from pathological changes occurring outside the gut. Intriguingly, gut motility problems also occur at […]

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) comprises incurable chronic diseases of the gut which oscillate between periods of disease worsening (i.e. relapse) and relatively normal health (i.e. remission). Whilst current medicines often reduce this see-sawing problem, their effectiveness eventually wanes to the point where a large percentage of IBD patients still need hospitalisation and major surgery during […]

The intestine exerts the vital function of maximizing nutrient uptake from the diet we ingest, being constantly exposed to external stimulation by food components. Alterations in the timing of food intake and diet composition have been associated with the development of immune-related intestinal dysfunctions, including IBS. However, despite its profound biological and clinical relevance, there […]