In IBD, the microbes within the intestinal tract, collectively known as the microbiota, are targeted by inappropriate immune responses. There are also a number of changes in the microbiota composition that are thought to drive or amplify IBD pathology. One of these is the expansion of E. coli. However, our preliminary data has identified select E. coli isolates that limit intestinal pathology in mouse models of colitis by activating intestinal macrophages that either limit inflammation or promote barrier repair, two therapeutic endpoints for IBD. These results indicate that while some E. coli may amplify disease, others may protect against it. Understanding these differences will allow us to develop novel therapeutics.